Theory

Theory:

There are multiple theories about the nature of politics itself that underline the Communist Manifesto throughout. The biggest theory Marx states in the beginning of the Manifesto is that all historical developments can be traced to class struggles. That conflict and strife throughout history can be summed up in terms of class struggles, as Marx mentions, serfs vs. feudal lords, and in the industrial age, the conflict between the working class, or proletariat, and the ruling class, or bourgeoisie. Simply put, struggles between the powerful and the powerless, the oppressor, and the oppressed. Marx saw this pattern of historical developments, and where it was at now, to theorize that the struggle between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie is part of the final stage of capitalism before revolution brings communism to fruition. In an attempt to hold onto power, the bourgeoise will continue to develop and advance the instruments of production and give the proletariat little bits of their demands here and there until the proletariat is finally strong enough to rise against the bourgeoisie using their own tools. The claim here is that all major changes in history, major shifts in class dynamics, have been the result of revolutionary reconstruction or the total ruin of the common class. This is no different for this final stage as Marx sees it, however, this time the very concept of classes and ruling classes will be shattered. This, to Marx, is communism. It is these deterministic theories of history and the development of capitalism that give Marxist theory a feeling of inevitability in its claims. Theoretically, Marx’ idea of the evolution of capitalism is somewhat reminiscent of W.W. Rostow’s book on the stages of economic growth, not to compare in communist ideals, as it is just the opposite, but the simple idea of capitalism evolving from the traditional society of agriculture to the late-stage development of high consumption, and increased attempts to include welfare into society in order to try and benefit everyone (Rostow 1960).  Marx would refer to such an attempt as conservative or bourgeois socialism. There does seem to be a connection in the way many see capitalism evolving into a somewhat hyper-consumption society.

 Empirical Claims:

As alluded to in the last section, Marx does not really take a solid empirical stance with the Communist Manifesto, instead relying on logical argumentation and analysis. Marx firmly disagrees with critiques of his points, to the point where he mentions them as essentially holding no weight and should be ignored. In some ways its argumentative stance works well and serves to support his claims, but in other ways it leaves one wanting for a more solid empirical foundation for such a broad reaching claim and theory. Perhaps it is work he believed would best be left to latter communist theorists using his ideas as its foundation. After all, this was long before any governments took to claim communism as their governmental philosophy. To loop back to the concepts mentioned earlier of the most specific policy claims we get, we will look at what they mean. Most importantly, Marx talks of the abolition of private property, which has come with much backlash at the time and since. Without explanation, the concept of the abolition of private property sounds insane, but Marx explains and defends It further by stating, “Communism deprives no man of the power to appropriate the products of society” (Marx 1848). Essentially, Marx is not stating that no one will be allowed to own anything privately, rather that no one will have the right to own the means of production that define capitalism and drive such vast economic inequalities. The proletarian state would centralize credit in a national bank, make education free for all children in public schools, institute heavy progressive income taxes, and eliminate the right to inherit wealth. While these ideas themselves let you see a little of what this would look like, there is not much defining done to what this would look like in practice. For instance, how heavy an income tax system, what does this look like exactly? What exactly does the combination of the manufacturing and agriculture industries mean in effect? How will laws looks surrounding private property and confiscation of property? The point of this Manifesto was clearly not to lay out specific policy prescriptions, however there are a few critical issues with the big claims Marx makes that are at the heart of this book. For one, he seems to be rather certain of capitalism’s development to this inevitable point of revolution and communism, but does a violent revolution need to happen necessarily to achieve such success? Also, how can Marx be so certain of the working class’ government wanting to establish these new rules of communism. Given human history, one would be more inclined to believe that they would simply replace the ruling class and enrich themselves as the previous class did. Marx seems overly optimistic in this regard.

 Methods:

Marx uses critiques of contemporary socialism and historical analysis to support and develop his theory. First, by pointing out that history indeed follows the pattern Marx claims it does, that of class struggles between oppressor and oppressed. From feudal lords and serfs, to slave and master, patricians and plebeians, and his concepts of ruling bourgeoisie and working-class proletarians, which is distinctly the industrial age evolution of that struggle. Marx, however, does not get too in depth about specific historical examples or periods to illustrate the concept in depth, even thought it seems that this concept of historical inevitability and deterministic outlook seem to be vital to understanding how capitalism has developed and where it will end up in Marx’ words. The stronger portion in Marx’ methodological approach is his critique of then-contemporary socialist theory. Marx’ problem with it is that in his view, the cycle of oppression will never cease under current state formation. Meaning that current governments aim to advance bourgeoisie interests, so any appeasements made from the ruling class to the proletarians is simply serving to extend their own rule and not actually fixing the inherent problem of oppression and class struggle. Marx mentions several types of socialism and dissects them and critiques their positions under his communist lens. Types like Reactionary socialism, conservative/bourgeois socialism, and critical-utopian socialism and communism. It is important to note that socialist thought and theories had existed for many years before Marx advanced the idea of communism. Quickly, the can be summarized as 1) the middle class fighting against bourgeoisie, industrialization, and change, 2) bourgeoisie addressing small social and working issues in order to appease the common class, and 3) the more visionary and idealistic theory of socialism that offers little in the way of actual reforms or ideas of the practical sense, in that respective order. Overall, Marx’ outline of the theory of communism does not get too detailed on specific points regarding historical analysis, which would be a strong method of analysis, but instead offers strong critiques of current socialist thought and also how he believes a communist party should operate in relation to the working class in his last section.

Research Paper 101
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Reasons to trust Research Paper 101

On Time Delivery

We pride ourselves in meeting the deadlines of our customers. We take your order, assign a writer but allow some more time for ourselves to edit the paper before delivering to you. You are guaranteed a flawless paper on a timely manner...

24x7 Customer Live Support

Our team at Research Paper 101 is committed to handling your paper according to the specfications and are available 24*7 for communication. Whenever you need a quick help, you can talk to our writers via the system messaging or contact support via live chat and we will deliver your message instantly.

Experienced Subject Experts

Online Experts from Research Paper 101 are qualified both academically and in their experiences. Many are Masters and Phd holders and therefore, are qualified to handle complex assignments that require critical thinking and analyses...

Customer Satisfaction

We offer dissertation papers as per students’ wishes. We also help craft out the best topics and design concept papers. By ordering with us, you are guaranteed of defending and making through those hard faced professors in the defense panel!

100% Plagiarism Free

We at Research Paper 101 take plagiarism as a serious offence. From the start, we train our writers to write all their papers from scratch. We also check if the papers have been cited appropriately. Our website also has a tool designed to check for plagiarism that has been made erroniusly. In essense, the paper you get will be 100% legit...

Affordable Prices

We understand that being a student is very challenging, some students balance between work and studies in order to survive. We therefore offer pocket friendly rates that are very competitive in the market.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

error: