Lutheran Theology and Its Implications for Contemporary Church and Society Student

Name Course Name Institution Date   The history of the church is always an interesting subject, especially during and after the protestant reformation. Martin Luther (1483-1546) can be regarded as the founder not only of the present protestant church but also the modern society. This is because of the many practices he rejected, including the sacramentalism, auricular confession, authority of the pope, and ordination of priests, among others. Additionally, his efforts to protect the faith from fanaticism and critiquing the church’s control over the family are a few of the aspects he opposed to and from which the protestants deviated. This study, therefore, focuses on Lutheran theology and explains why Luther can be regarded as the founder of the modern church and society. Need for the Study This research is needed because it explores the history of the church and the emergence of modern society. It is argued that the rise of modern economies and states may have roots to the Lutheran reformation. Luther lived in an era where the church was a dominant force which maintained the divinely-world view which was losing credibility. His rejection of some church control over human life, including the family, may have allowed the rise of modern communities where the states were the dominant power governing most aspects of human life. In such an investigation, the name of Martin Luther will dominate the discussion, hence the need to clarify his contributions and theological inclinations. Thesis Statement Martin Luther’s theology started the reformation in Germany through his famous 95 Theses and in doing so helped model the contemporary society and Protestant church. Procedure of the Study This research will be undertaken in the form of a systematic literature review. The procedure includes the formation of research questions and the definition of keywords to be used in the search for secondary data. Online databases and repositories, as well as historical theological texts, will all be explored. The inclusion criterion for the resources is that they will have to contain the relevant information exploring the Lutheran theology. A compilation of the major findings and themes will be presented in a research report. The protestant reformation is indeed a significant topic in modern Christianity because it helps to explain the history of the church. Many studies and publications today appreciate and critique the Lutheran theology. It is important to acknowledge that the reformation was majorly caused by the attitudes towards the Jews and the status and legal role of the church in families (Ozment and Witte 2017, 195; Pak 2017, 2). Martin Luther is acknowledged to have changed the history of the world forever and all debate on the reformation can be centered on him (Holder 2017, 1). His opposition to certain aspects of the church conflicted with the state and caused a crisis of faith in the modern Western Christianity. In addition, religious houses started losing credibility and began closing down (Orta 2017; Acocella 2017; Pfrimmer 2017, 1). This points towards the fact that the reformation caused many disruptions and turmoil. Lutheran reformation had significant implications on modern societies. It began in Germany after which several political revolutions in Europe emerged, including the French Wars and the Revolt of the Netherlands from Spain (Mullet 2017, 1). This explains why some scholars believe that the reformation is a religious, educational, and political project (Winther-Jensen 2019, 106). Even after Luther’s death, it persisted and resulted in critical changes in both the economic and political aspects of humanity (Fukuyama 2017, Rössner 2019, 234). However, his contributions may be reputed and challenged by some authors. It is also important to acknowledge that Luther was associated with some of the infamous historical events. For example, he has been depicted as the father of anti-Semitism because of his recommendations on how to treat the Jews (Pak 2017, 2). This is because his theological inclination contrasted that of the Jews and he would appear aggressive and frustrated at the slow pace with which the changes he sought were implemented. However, he cannot be singled out more than any other key figures behind the reformation, but this is an opinion among those not completely believing Luther to be solely responsible for anti-Semitism.   Bibliography Acocella, Joan. 2017. “How Martin Luther Changed the World.” The New Yorker, October 30. Accessed January 21, 2021. Fukuyama, Francis. 2017. “Political Consequences of the Protestant Reformation, Part I.” The American Interest. October 31. Accessed January 21, 2021. Holder, Ward. 2017. “The Reformers and Tradition: Seeing the Roots of the Problem.” Religions 8, no. 6 (2017): 1-11. Accessed January 22, 2021. Mullet, Michael. 2017. Luther. New York: Routledge. Orta, Joseph. 2017. “How Martin Luther Started a Religious Revolution.” National Geographic, October 12. Accessed January 21, 2021. Ozment, Steven, and John Witte. 2017. “Martin Luther.” In Christianity and Family Law: An Introduction, edited by John Witte and Gary Hauk, 195-210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Pak, Sujin. 2017. “The Protestant Reformers and the Jews: Excavating Contexts, Unearthing Logic.” Religions 8, no. 4 (2017): 1-13. Accessed January 22, 2021. Pfrimmer, David. 2017. “Martin Luther’s Contribution to Public Ethics Today.” Consensus 38, no. 2 (2017): 1-22. Accessed January 22, 2021. Rössner, Phillip. 2019. “Martin Luther and the Making of the Modern Economic Mind.” International Review of Economics 66, no. 1955 (2019): 233-248. Accessed January 22, 2021. Winther-Jensen, Thyge. 2019. “The Reformation as a Religious, Political, and Educational Project.” Revista Española de Educación Comparada 33 (2019): 106-121. Accessed January 22, 2021.

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