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“A scientific theory is meaningful only if the scientist who proposes it knows how the theory might be wrong. Hence, if the scientist only claims to have proven the theory by experiment, she has not really contributed anything to scientific knowledge. For example, a scientist who has proven that a vaccine can prevent COVID-19 infection but does not know how the vaccine might be ineffective does not really know anything about that vaccine.” Please write an essay in response to the above view. Your essay should not exceed 500 words (preferably between 400 to 500 words) and should be typewritten. This is an open-ended question and so there is no model answer or a best response. What the examiner looks for is clarity of writing and analysis based on personal understanding. Hence, quoting here and there from pptx, books, and Wikipedia, etc. will not help. Quotation or reference is not required but if you do quote or refer, please follow the format of any of the standard style guide such as MLA or APA. The essay should be submitted by email

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            Science is the systematic and logical approach for discovering how the universe work. Science is the body of knowledge accumulated through years of discoveries.  Derived from the Latin word Scientia, science is knowledge-based, and it is founded on reproducible data (Black, 2018). Science is different from other forms of knowledge because it relies on the scientific method, which is experimentation. The scientific method is the methodological process that enables scientists to test a hypothesis, build theories, and generate new knowledge. Scientific theories are generated through the scientific method process. Scientific theories are tested and accepted explanations as to why things happen. The theories are formed after rigorous testing, and they give a reliable explanation for a phenomenon, for example, the scientists that discovered the COVID-19 vaccine.

            However, scientific theories are not absolute truths.  The scientific method entails the three steps of making an observation, creating and testing a hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion (Mehlberg, 2020). The three scientific steps are employed in all scientific research to enhance reliability, predictability, and fairness. Yet scientific theories are not absolute truths, and they might be wrong.  The scientific method is the best-known, but it is not the absolute truth.  There are many cases where science has been proven wrong; thus, a scientific theory is meaningful when the scientists propose how the theory could go wrong.

            Scientific theories also fall under the various school of thought. Some scientists are skeptics, while others are empiricists.  Empiricism is the perspective that knowledge comes from using senses to observe the world, while rationalists believe that knowledge is from intellectual reasoning. Scientists come from different schools of thought, and this affects their conclusion.

            While scientific theories are not absolute truths, the scientific method is the best method of explaining events. The scientific method focuses on the question at hand, and it has demonstrated on several occasions that it can generate results. Scientific methods are responsible for all innovations that drive society across all sectors, from medicine to manufacturing.

            Covid-19 vaccines are scientific innovations because the researchers followed the scientific methods used to develop other vaccines in the past. Some of the Covid-19 vaccines have been proven to be safe and effective through numerous tests.  Additionally, different health institutions such as the National Academy of Sciences and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have carried out numerous tests on Covid-19 vaccines to find out the efficacy and side effects.  The vaccines were declared safe before distribution to the public. Both Moderna and Pfizer vaccines are 95% effective, and they are the best chance for fighting Covid-19, particularly for people with underlying conditions. While scientists are yet to find a Covid-19 vaccine that is 100% effective, available vaccines are 95% effective, and they show that scientists are engaged in the rigorous scientific process.


Black, M. (2018). Critical thinking: An introduction to logic and scientific method. Pickle Partners Publishing.

Mehlberg, H. (2020). The reach of science. University of Toronto Press.

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