Article 4 “The Role of Cytokine Storm in Influenza Pathogenesis” Questions:

  1. What is a cytokine storm, what are the major players involved (Cytokines)?
  • What cytokines are involved in controlling a cytokine storm (mass inflammation)?
  • Who is normally affected more severely by the flu virus?
  • From question 3, what was strange about the 2009 H1N1 cases?
  • What is the (believed) cause of cytokine overproduction for the H1N1?
  • Which immune cells are involved in the overproduction of cytokines (see H5N1)?
  • Why were healthy people ages 20 – 50 more susceptible to H1N1?
  • Explain the balance of inflammation in the flu immune response, i.e. too little inflammation/too much inflammation:

You are looking at developing a drug to help with transplantations, by trying to prevent naïve Helper T Cells from activation (remember that naïve T Cells are mature, they just have not recognized their antigen/MHC complex yet).  Because the transplanted tissue has probably never been seen by the immune system, you are not to worry about memory T Cells.  Your goal is to prevent the antibody response by preventing the Helper T Cells from activating the B Cell response to the tissue. 


  • How Helper T Cells talk to B Cells
  • How T Cells/B Cells respond (activate)

The assignment:

  • Explain what the drug you created targets, Example – does it target a specific cell, a cytokine, a receptor, ect…
  • Explain why you chose this target, and then in detail explain what the drug does and what are the effects of it.  (If you chose to target a receptor, does it activate it or block it, and what are the consequences of such)
  • Be sure to explain the pros and the cons of your designer drug

EXTRA CREDIT (up to 5pts)

Explain a mechanism you could target to prevent just the B Cells from being able to be activated, without targeting any part of the T Cell.

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