“Why are your cheeks emaciated, your expression desolate!

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Category One
Epic of Gilgamesh (109)

  1. Urshanabi spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:’
    “Why are your cheeks emaciated, your expression desolate!
  2. Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, saying:
    “Urshanabi, should not my cheeks be emaciated, my expression
  3. My friend who chased wild asses in the mountain, the panther
    of the wilderness…
  4. My friend, whom I love deeply, who went through every hardship with me,
  5. Enkidu, my friend, whom I love deeply, who went through
    every hardship with me, has died.
  6. Six days and seven nights I mourned over him
    and would not allow him to be buried until a maggot fell out of his nose.
  7. I was terrified by his appearance(!),
  8. I began to fear death, and so roam the wilderness.
  9. The issue of my friend oppresses me,
    so I have been roaming long trails through the wilderness.
    10.The issue of Enkidu, my friend, oppresses me,
    so I have been roaming long roads through the wilderness.
    11.How can I stay silent, how can I be still!
    12.My friend whom I love has turned to clay;
    13.Enkidu, my friend whom I love, has turned to clay!
    14.Am I not like him! Will I lie down, never to get up again!”
    15.Utanapishtim spoke to Gilgamesh, saying:
    “Gilgamesh, you came here exhausted and worn out.
    What can I give you so you can return to your land?
    I will disclose to you a thing that is hidden, Gilgamesh,
    a… I will tell you.
    16.There is a plant… like a boxthorn,
    whose thorns will prick your hand like a rose.
    17.If your hands reach that plant you will become a young
    man again.”
    18.….He took the plant, though it pricked his hand,
    and cut the heavy stones from his feet,
    letting the waves(?) throw him onto its shores.
    19.Gilgamesh spoke to Urshanabi, the ferryman, saying:
    “Urshanabi, this plant is a plant against decay
    by which a man can attain his survival.
    I will bring it to Uruk-Haven,
    and have an old man eat the plant to test it.
    20.The plant’s name is ‘The Old Man Becomes a Young Man.'”
    21.Then I will eat it and return to the condition of my youth.”
    At twenty leagues they broke for some food,
    at thirty leagues they stopped for the night.
    22.Seeing a spring and how cool its waters were,
    Gilgamesh went down and was bathing in the water.
    23.A snake smelled the fragrance of the plant,
    silently came up and carried off the plant.
    While going back it sloughed off its casing.’
    24.At that point Gilgamesh sat down, weeping,
    his tears streaming over the side of his nose.
    (109) Academy of Ancient Texts. The Epic of Gilgamesh is in the Public Domain.
    Source URL: http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/tab11.htm
    Book of Ecclesiastes (110)
    Chapter 3
    15 That which is has been long ago, and that which is to be has been long ago. God
    seeks again that which is passed away.
    16 Moreover I saw under the sun, in the place of justice, that wickedness was there; and
    in the place of righteousness, that wickedness was there. 17 I said in my heart, “God will
    judge the righteous and the wicked; for there is a time there for every purpose and for
    every work.”
    20 All go to one place. All are from the dust, and all turn to dust again. 21 Who knows the
    spirit of man, whether it goes upward, and the spirit of the animal, whether it goes
    downward to the earth?”
    22 Therefore I saw that there is nothing better than that a man should rejoice in his
    works; for that is his portion: for who can bring him to see what will be after him?
    Chapter 4
    9 Two are better than one, because they have a good reward for their labor. 10 For if they
    fall, the one will lift up his fellow; but woe to him who is alone when he falls, and doesn’t
    have another to lift him up. 11 Again, if two lie together, then they have warmth; but how
    can one keep warm alone? 12 If a man prevails against one who is alone, two shall
    withstand him; and a threefold cord is not quickly broken.
    13 Better is a poor and wise youth than an old and foolish king who doesn’t know how to
    receive admonition any more. 14 For out of prison he came out to be king; yes, even in
    his kingdom he was born poor. 15 I saw all the living who walk under the sun, that they
    were with the youth, the other, who succeeded him.
    (110) The World English Bible. Book of Ecclesiastes 3:15-17, 20-22; 4:9-15 is in the
    Public Domain.
    Source URL: https://ebible.org/web/ECC03.htm
    Category Two
    Apology by Plato
    Someone will say: Yes, Socrates, but cannot you hold your tongue, and then you may
    go into a foreign city, and no one will interfere with you? Now I have great difficulty in
    making you understand my answer to this. For if I tell you that this would be a
    disobedience to a divine command, and therefore that I cannot hold my tongue, you will
    not believe that I am serious; and if I say again that the greatest good of man is daily to
    converse about virtue, and all that concerning which you hear me examining myself and
    others, and that the life which is unexamined is not worth living – that you are still less
    likely to believe…. (111)
    Let us reflect in another way, and we shall see that there is great reason to hope that
    death is a good, for one of two things: – either death is a state of nothingness and utter
    unconsciousness, or, as men say, there is a change and migration of the soul from this
    world to another. Now if you suppose that there is no consciousness, but a sleep like
    the sleep of him who is undisturbed even by the sight of dreams, death will be an
    unspeakable gain. For if a person were to select the night in which his sleep was
    undisturbed even by dreams, and were to compare with this the other days and nights
    of his life, and then were to tell us how many days and nights he had passed in the
    course of his life better and more pleasantly than this one, I think that any man, I will not
    say a private man, but even the great king, will not find many such days or nights, when
    compared with the others. Now if death is like this, I say that to die is gain; for eternity is
    then only a single night. (112)
    (111) Wikiquote. Socrates is licensed under CC-BY-SA 3.0.
    Source URL: https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Socrates
    (112) Wikiquote Apology (Plato) is licensed under CC-BY-SA 3.0.
    Source URL: https://en.wikiquote.org/wiki/Apology_(Plato)
    Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle (113)
    Happiness extends, then, just so far as contemplation does, and those to whom
    contemplation more fully belongs are more truly happy, not as a mere concomitant but
    in virtue of the contemplation; for this is in itself precious. Happiness, therefore, must be
    some form of contemplation.
    But, being a man, one will also need external prosperity; for our nature is not selfsufficient for the purpose of contemplation, but our body also must be healthy and must
    have food and other attention. Still, we must not think that the man who is to be happy
    will need many things or great things, merely because he cannot be supremely happy
    without external goods; for self-sufficiency and action do not involve excess, and we can
    do noble acts without ruling earth and sea; for even with moderate advantages one can
    act virtuously (this is manifest enough; for private persons are thought to do worthy acts
    no less than despots-indeed even more); and it is enough that we should have so much
    as that; for the life of the man who is active in accordance with virtue will be happy.
    (113) Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle (350 BCE) translated by W. D. Ross in 1908 is in
    the Public Domain.
    Source URL: http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/nicomachaen.10.x.html
    Book of Mathew, Jesus son of Joseph (114)
    Chapter 5
    1 Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his
    disciples came to him. 2 He opened his mouth and taught them, saying,
    3 “Blessed are the poor in spirit,
    4 Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.
    5 Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth.
    6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled.
    7 Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy.
    8 Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
    9 Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called children of God.
    10 Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness’ sake, for theirs is the
    Kingdom of Heaven.
    11 “Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil
    against you falsely, for my sake. 12 Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your
    reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you.
    43 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your
    enemy.’ 44 But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to
    those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you, 45 that you
    may be children of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the
    evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. 46 For if you love those who
    love you, what reward do you have? Don’t even the tax collectors do the same? 47 If you
    only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don’t even the tax
    collectors do the same?
    Chapter 6
    2 Therefore when you do merciful deeds, don’t sound a trumpet before yourself, as the
    hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may get glory from men.
    Most certainly I tell you, they have received their reward. 3 But when you do merciful
    deeds, don’t let your left hand know what your right hand does, 4 so that your merciful
    deeds may be in secret, then your Father who sees in secret will reward you openly.
    25 Therefore I tell you, don’t be anxious for your life: what you will eat, or what you will
    drink; nor yet for your body, what you will wear. Isn’t life more than food, and the body
    more than clothing? 26 See the birds of the sky, that they don’t sow, neither do they
    reap, nor gather into barns. Your heavenly Father feeds them. Aren’t you of much more
    value than they?
    27 “Which of you, by being anxious, can add one moment‡ to his lifespan? 28 Why are
    you anxious about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow. They don’t
    toil, neither do they spin, 29 yet I tell you that even Solomon in all his glory was not
    dressed like one of these. 30 But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today
    exists, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, won’t he much more clothe you, you of
    little faith?
    34 Therefore don’t be anxious for tomorrow, for tomorrow will be anxious for itself. Each
    day’s own evil is sufficient.
    (114) The World Bible. English Book of Matthew, Chapter 5, Verse 1-11, 43-47; Chapter
    6, Verse 2-4, 25-30, 34 is in the Public Domain.
    Source URL: https://ebible.org/web/MAT05.htm
    Moral Letters to Lucilius – Letter 9 by Seneca (115)
    There is this difference between ourselves and the Epicureans: our ideal wise man feels
    his troubles, but overcomes them; their wise man does not even feel them. But we and
    they alike hold this idea, – that the wise man is self-sufficient. Nevertheless, he desires
    friends, neighbors, and associates, no matter how much he is sufficient unto himself.
    And mark how self-sufficient be is; for on occasion he can be content with a part of
    himself. If he lose a hand through disease or war, or if some accident puts out one or
    both of his eyes, he will be satisfied with what is left, taking as much pleasure in his
    impaired and maimed body as he took when it was sound. But while he does not pine
    for these parts if they are missing, he prefers not to lose them. In this sense the wise
    man is self-sufficient, that he can do without friends, not that he desires to do without
    For what purpose, then, do I make a man my friend? In order to have someone for
    whom I may die, whom I may follow into exile, against whose death I may stake my own
    life, and pay the pledge, too. The friendship which you portray is a bargain and not a
    friendship; it regards convenience only, and looks to the results. Beyond question the
    feeling of a lover has in it something akin to friendship; one might call it friendship run
    mad. But, though this is true, does anyone love for the sake of gain, or promotion, or
    renown? Pure/a love+, careless of all other things, kindles the soul with desire for the
    beautiful object, not without the hope of a return of the affection. What then? Can a
    cause which is more honorable produce a passion that is base? You may retort: “We
    are now discussing the question whether friendship is to be cultivated for its own sake.”
    On the contrary, nothing more urgently requires demonstration; for if friendship is to be
    sought for its own sake, he may seek it who is self-sufficient. “How, then,” you ask,
    “does he seek it?” Precisely as he seeks an object of great beauty, not attracted to it by
    desire for gain, nor yet frightened by the instability of Fortune. One who seeks
    friendship for favorable occasions, strips it of all its nobility.
    “The wise man is self-sufficient.” This phrase, my dear Lucilius, is incorrectly explained
    by many; for they withdraw the wise man from the world, and force him to dwell within
    his own skin. But we must mark with care what this sentence signifies and how far it
    applies; the wise man is sufficient unto himself for a happy existence, but not for mere
    existence. For he needs many helps towards mere existence; but for a happy existence
    he needs only a sound and upright soul, one that despises Fortune.
    (115) Moral letters to Lucilius by Seneca by Wikisource is licensed under CC BY-SA
    Source URL: https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Moral_letters_to_Lucilius/Letter_9
    Category Three
    Summa Theologica by Thomas Acquinas (116)
    Now, it is clear from what we have said that it is impossible for human happiness to
    consist in bodily pleasures, the chief of which are those of food and sex…. Besides,
    happiness is a certain kind of good, appropriate to man. Indeed, brute animals cannot
    be deemed happy, unless we stretch the meaning of the term. But [bodily] pleasures are
    common to men and brutes. So, happiness should not be attributed to them.
    Similarly, neither can worldly power be man’s highest good, since in its attainment, also,
    fortune can play a most important part. It is also unstable; nor is it subject to man’s will;
    oftentimes it comes to bad men—and these characteristics are incompatible with the
    highest good, as was evident in the foregoing arguments.
    Moreover, that man’s highest good does not lie in goods of the body, such as health,
    beauty, and strength, is clearly evident from similar considerations. For these things are
    possessed in common by both good and bad men….Moreover, many animals are better
    endowed than men, as far as the goods of the body go; for some are faster than man,
    some are stronger, and so on. If, then, man’s highest good lay in these things, man
    would not be the most excellent of animals; which is obviously false. Therefore, human
    felicity does not consist in goods of the body….
    So, if the ultimate happiness of man does not consist in external things which are called
    the goods of fortune, nor in the goods of the body, nor in the goods of the soul
    according to its sensitive part, nor as regards the intellective part according to the
    activity of the moral virtues, nor according to the intellectual virtues that are concerned
    with action, that is, art and prudence—we are left with the conclusion that the ultimate
    felicity of man lies in the contemplation of truth.
    If then you are master of yourself, you will be in possession of that which you will never
    wish to lose, and which Fortune will never be able to take from you. Yet consider this
    further, that you may.
    (116) Summa Theologica by Thomas Acquinas (1485) published by Benziger Brothers
    in 1911 is in the Public Domain.
    Source URL: http://dhspriory.org/thomas/ContraGentiles3a.htm – 30
    The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius (117)
    If then you are master of yourself, you will be in possession of that which you will never
    wish to lose, and which Fortune will never be able to take from you. Yet consider this
    further, that you maybe assured that happiness cannot be fixed in matters of chance: if
    happiness is the highest good of a man who lives his life by reason, and if that which
    can by any means be snatched away, is not the highest good (since that which is best
    cannot be snatched away), it is plain that Fortune by its own uncertainty can never
    come near to reaching happiness. Further, the ma n who is borne along by a happiness
    which may stumble, either knows that it may change, or knows it not: if he knows it not,
    what happiness can there be in the blindness of ignorance? If he knows it, he must
    needs live in fear of losing that which he cannot doubt that he may lose; wherefore an
    ever-present fear allows not such an one to be happy. Or at any rate, if he lose it
    without unhappiness, does he not think it worthless? For that, whose loss can be calmly
    borne, is indeed a small good. You, I know well, are firmly persuaded that men’s
    understandings can never die; this truth is planted deep in you by many proofs: since
    then it is plain that the happiness of fortune is bounded by the death of the body, you
    cannot doubt that, if death can carry away happiness, the whole race of mortals is
    sinking into wretchedness to be found upon the border of death. But we know that many
    have sought the enjoyment of happiness not only by death, but even by sorrow and
    sufferings: how then can the presence of this life make us happy, when its end cannot
    make us unhappy
    (117) The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius (AD 523) translated by W. V. Cooper,
    J.M. Dent and Company in 1902 is in the Public Domain.
    Source URL: http://faculty.georgetown.edu/jod/boethius/boetrans.html

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