The 4 Standard Echo Views:

The standard probe used for TTE is 2-4 MHZ (Transthoracic)

  1. A) Parasternal long axis:
  2.     B) Parasternal short axis:
  3. Apical view: 
  4. Subcostal view: 
  5. Suprasternal view

 Parasternal Long Axis

The probe is positioned to the left of the lower sternum at the 4th or 5thintercostals space, angled obliquely so the marker points to the right shoulder. This provides long view of the left ventricle, mitral valve, Lt. Atrium, aortic valve, ascending aorta and right ventricle. Demonstrate continuity of the IVS with the anterior wall of the aortic wall.

https://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u018.jpg,Image result for Measurements of heart on 2D ultrasound

 

Note:The anterior portion of the aortic root and the interventricular septum should be continuous and as perpendicular to the sound beam as possible. The posterior portion of the aortic root is continuous with anterior mitral leaflet

Mitral Valve M-Mode

 

Note: The Mitral Valve is labeled to describe the different phases of its motion:

 

D — beginning of diastole

E — maximal excursion of the

valve

F — Initial closure, point to

which the valve had closed

following the passive filling

phase

A — atrial contraction

( P wave on the ECG )

C — closure of the valve and beginning

 of systole

M-mode of Aortic valve

 Displays the aortic root,

Aortic cusps opening in systole and closing in diastole

mmodeavhttps://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u036.jpg                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Aortic Root – Should be measured at the end of diastole (at the onset of Q in the EKG) Normally 3 cm.

2. Aortic Cusp Separation – Measured at early Systole, Normally 1.5-2cm                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. Aortic Ejection Time – From the beginning of valve opening to the end of Valve opening

4. Left Atrium: Dimension Measurement are taken at the end of the Ventricular Systole end of T wave. Normally 4cm ( + or – 3mm)                                                                                                                                  -Left atrium more than 6 cm is considered significantly enlarged                  

Normal M- mode examination of the left ventricle. Left ventricular walls should be perpendicular to sound beam

mmleftventnew1

1.       Left Ventricular Diameter end diastole ( LVDD ), Measured at the onset of QRS, the upper limits is 5.4 cm.

2.         Left Ventricular diameter end systole measured at the peak downward displacement of the IVS, Measured at the end of T wave on EKG

3.         IVS: Measured at the end of diastole, at the start of Q wave in EKG, It is 0.7-1.1 cm.

4.         Post Wall:  Measured at the end of diastole, at the start of Q wave in EKG,

It is 0.7 – 1.1 cm

 Right Ventricular Inflow View

Maintaining the same inter costal space and transducer orientation, angle the transducer inferior and medial, towards the belly button shows the right ventricular inflow view, RV, TV and RA, blood flow on color Doppler will be red towards the transducer

https://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u019.jpg

 

3. Right Ventricular Outflow View

Maintaining the same inter costal space and transducer orientation, angle the transducer superior and lateral towards the left shoulder. This will open the pulmonary artery and allow the assessment of pulmonic valve. Color flow Doppler will show blue color away from the transducer

https://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u020.jpg

Parasternal Short Axis

Rotate the transducer 90 degrees from the long axis Parasternal position, Transducer will point to the Lt. Shoulder one O’clock position

Aortic Valve Level

Mitral Valve Level

Papillary Muscle Level

Apical level

  1. Aortic Valve level
https://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u021.jpg

The AV should be in the center of the screen with the LA, RA, RV as well as the tricuspid valve (TV) and the right ventricular outflow track (RVOT) can be displayed surrounding it.

Evaluate for the presence of three aortic cusps and thickness and motion of all the valves

  • Parasternal short axis mitral valve level:(Fish Mouth)

Tilt transducer a little from the same position down to the right. A cross section of the left ventricle (LV) at the level of the mitral valve and the right ventricle (RV) can be displayed.

https://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u022.jpg
  • Parasternal short axis (papillary muscle level):

Angling the transducer more downwards, Lt Ventricle with the papillary muscle giving the cavity a mushroom like appearance

Assess ventricular function for focal or global abnormalities

Slide an interspace down if view is not clear

https://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u023.jpg

 

https://coursewareobjects.elsevier.com/objects/elr/Tempkin/scanning4e/IC/jpg/Chapter22/022u024.jpg Apical 4 Chamber Vie

Transducer at the point of impulse (PM) pointing laterally (3 o’clock)

LEFT VENTRICULAR INFLOW

– MITRAL VALVE;(Left ventricular inflow)

Image result for images of left ventricular doppler assessmentMitral valve waveform is obtained from apical 4 chambers view or apical long axis view.

Sample volume should be placed at the tips of the

mitral valve leaflets

Doppler waveform shows two peak velocities

a. E wave reflects early passive diastolic filling

during left ventricular relaxation

Normal peak velocity at E is 0.6- 1.3 m/sec,

b. A wave late diastolic peak velocity related to

Image result for images of left ventricular doppler assessmentatrial contraction

 A waveform is 0.2- 0.7 m/sec

Flow is biphasic occurs during diastole and reflects

passive left ventricular filling.

Left ventricular waveform varies with age

E/A ratio >1 young patient

E/A ratio = 1 at age 50-60

E/A ratio <1older patient

Note: If diastole is long enough, a period of no flow or

 diastasis is seen between two waves                                                                       

Apical 5 Chamber View

Angling the transducer upwards you will see the LVOT (Root of Aorta )

 Tilt the transducer slightly down. The aortic valve

http://www.echocardiographer.org/Transthoracic/Still%20Frame%20Labels/TTE.A5Clabel.jpg (AV) can be seen in the middle, between chambers.

Tilting the transducer to the opposite direction,

The coronary sinus can be displayed.

5kb

-LEFT VENTRICULAR OUTFLOW TRACT (LVOT)

Figure 7: An example of Pulsed Wave Doppler of normal flow through the left ventricular outflow tractWaveform is obtained from the apical 5 chambers, or from the apical long axis

Sample volume placed in the ventricular side of the aortic valve.

The normal range is 0.7- 1.1m/sec

Flow occurs in systole

-Ascending Aorta (LVOT)

Flow occurs in systole.

Obtained using the apical 5 chambers or apical long axis view

Normal trans valvular velocity is 1.0- 1.7 m/sec

Apical two-chamber view:

2kbTurn the transducer aprox. 60° counter- clockwise

from the previous position, Transducer orientation

towards patient’s left shoulder,

 The left ventricle (LV) and the left atrium (LA)

can be displayed

3kbApical three-chamber view:

Turn the transducer further, aprox. 60° counter-clockwise

 from the previous position, transducer orientation

towards patient’s left shoulder, and side tilt slightly upwards

The left ventricle (LV), the left atrium (LA)

and the aortic bulb (Ao) can be displayed

Subcostal view:

Place the transducer on the subxyphoid region.

The transducer’s index mark is directed towards

 the patient’s head. The inferior vena cava (VCI)

 can be displayed. Turn the transducer clockwise

subcostal slightly to display the right and left ventricle,

as well as the right (RA) and left atrium.

suprasternalSuprasternal view:

 Place the transducer on the suprasternal region.

The transducer’s index mark is directed towards

the patient’s head and turned aprox. 45° to the right.

 The aortic arch (*), the neck arteries (TB, CL, SL)

and the right pulmonary artery (RPA) as well as the

left atrium (LA) can be displayed

Research Paper 101
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Reasons to trust Research Paper 101

On Time Delivery

We pride ourselves in meeting the deadlines of our customers. We take your order, assign a writer but allow some more time for ourselves to edit the paper before delivering to you. You are guaranteed a flawless paper on a timely manner...

24x7 Customer Live Support

Our team at Research Paper 101 is committed to handling your paper according to the specfications and are available 24*7 for communication. Whenever you need a quick help, you can talk to our writers via the system messaging or contact support via live chat and we will deliver your message instantly.

Experienced Subject Experts

Online Experts from Research Paper 101 are qualified both academically and in their experiences. Many are Masters and Phd holders and therefore, are qualified to handle complex assignments that require critical thinking and analyses...

Customer Satisfaction

We offer dissertation papers as per students’ wishes. We also help craft out the best topics and design concept papers. By ordering with us, you are guaranteed of defending and making through those hard faced professors in the defense panel!

100% Plagiarism Free

We at Research Paper 101 take plagiarism as a serious offence. From the start, we train our writers to write all their papers from scratch. We also check if the papers have been cited appropriately. Our website also has a tool designed to check for plagiarism that has been made erroniusly. In essense, the paper you get will be 100% legit...

Affordable Prices

We understand that being a student is very challenging, some students balance between work and studies in order to survive. We therefore offer pocket friendly rates that are very competitive in the market.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

error: