# Standing Waves

First, as a class we will create a standing wave on a string, and discuss how adjusting the tension changes the wave that is formed.

1. Every person grab a tuning fork! (You may grab multiple if you want).

Measure tuning fork frequency with oscilloscope.

1. Connect speaker to oscilloscope. This should already be done, but follow the connections and make sense of them. The oscilloscope is measuring the oscillation of the speaker cone (vertical axis on oscilloscope), vs time (horizontal axis).
1. Call me over to help explain the oscilloscope.
1. Make a tone on tuning fork and hold tuning fork near speaker. This should cause a sinusoidal wave to appear on the oscilloscope. Adjust the calibration knob towards the top of the oscilloscope so the observed wave is stationary.
1. The vibrations of the tuning fork cause the speaker to vibrate. What is this phenomena called?
• What are the units on the horizonal scale of the oscilloscope. Measure one complete cycle, what is this value?

Use your measurement to calculate the tuning fork’s frequency. Does this agree with your tuning fork? (Your tuning fork likely gives off multiple harmonics, and the speaker may be more sensitive to the higher harmonics so you may get a much higher frequency. By what multiple is your measurement larger than the frequency on the tuning fork?)

• Repeat this experiment with at least one more tuning fork.
• Determine speed of air using glass tube.

You are trying to determine what length of air in the glass cylinder resonates with the tuning fork. You will hold the tuning fork very near the glass tube in order to create resonance but try not to touch them together because you do not want to break the glass. By relating the frequency of the fork to the length of the glass column, you can determine the velocity of sound through air. (this should be close to 343 m/s)

1. Draw the fundamental frequency associated with the glass cylinder (this is a tube with one end opened and one end closed). How does the wavelength of this fundamental frequency relate to the glass tube’s length? (write an equation, but use the variable “L” for the tube’s length instead of an actual number)
• How will the length of the fundamental wavelength change as you pour water into the cylinder?
• Slowly pour water into the cylinder. As you pour water, the ‘sound’ of the pouring water will change in pitch. When this pitch is the same as the tuning fork, the cylinder will strongly resonate when the tuning fork is held next to it. Match the resonance as best you can by adjusting the amount of water in the cylinder.
• Measure the length of the open section in the cylinder. Use this to calculate a value for the wavelength of the fundamental standing wave. Using this wavelength, and the frequency of the tuning fork, calculate the velocity of air. Also calculate what the theoretical velocity of sound in air should be considering the room’s temperature.
• Empty the cylinder for the next group.

Lab Report Title: “Calculating the speed of sound in air using resonance of a tuning fork and a cylinder filled partially with water”

Focus your lab report ONLY on things related to this title!

Be sure to fully explain the theory associated with “how this works” in your introduction section.

Your results section only needs your measurements. For this lab you are measuring the length of open air in the tube.

Your experimental section only needs to explain how you arrive at this one measurement.

Your introduction must clearly explain why this one measurement is needed to calculate the speed of sound in air.

The FIRST sentence of your conclusion MUST STATE your calculated AND theoretical speed of sound in air or else your lab report gets a 0!!!  I’m serious!

Your conclusion must discuss the value you calculated and compare it to the theoretical value. Be specific in these comparisons. Give physical reasons for any discrepancies. If you do not make any SPECIFIC comparison to the theoretical value you will get at most 3 points.

Examples of bad/good sentences (with regards to scientific usefulness)

Bad: “the values are pretty close”, Good: “The calculated value is 1 m/s larger than the theoretical value”. Best: “The calculated value is 1% larger than the theoretical value”

Bad: “The values are different because of human error”, Good: “The values may be different due to error in measuring the length”, Best: “The measurement of the length of the column had an error of about +- 3 mm. This corresponds to a +- 3% error in our calculation of the speed of sound in air. Our measurement and theoretical values differ by 2%, which falls within the error expect from our length measurement.”

Bad: “We use the equation F=ma”, Good: “We use the equation F=ma to find the mass, where F is force, m is mass, and a is acceleration”, Best: “We use the equation F=ma, where F is force, m is mass, and a is acceleration. The value for a=g=9.81 m/s^2. The force will be experimentally measured using a force sensor. Following this measurement, we can calculate the mass.”

Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

## Reasons to trust Research Paper 101

On Time Delivery

We pride ourselves in meeting the deadlines of our customers. We take your order, assign a writer but allow some more time for ourselves to edit the paper before delivering to you. You are guaranteed a flawless paper on a timely manner...

24x7 Customer Live Support

Our team at Research Paper 101 is committed to handling your paper according to the specfications and are available 24*7 for communication. Whenever you need a quick help, you can talk to our writers via the system messaging or contact support via live chat and we will deliver your message instantly.

Experienced Subject Experts

Online Experts from Research Paper 101 are qualified both academically and in their experiences. Many are Masters and Phd holders and therefore, are qualified to handle complex assignments that require critical thinking and analyses...

Customer Satisfaction

We offer dissertation papers as per students’ wishes. We also help craft out the best topics and design concept papers. By ordering with us, you are guaranteed of defending and making through those hard faced professors in the defense panel!

100% Plagiarism Free

We at Research Paper 101 take plagiarism as a serious offence. From the start, we train our writers to write all their papers from scratch. We also check if the papers have been cited appropriately. Our website also has a tool designed to check for plagiarism that has been made erroniusly. In essense, the paper you get will be 100% legit...

Affordable Prices

We understand that being a student is very challenging, some students balance between work and studies in order to survive. We therefore offer pocket friendly rates that are very competitive in the market.

Try it now!

## Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
\$0.00

How it works?

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

## Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.