Quantitative Analysis Report 4:

Nonparametric Tests—Mann Whitney U Test & Kruskal Wallis H Test Instructions

You will take part in several data analysis assignments in which you will develop a report using tables and figures from the IBM SPSS® output file of your results. Using the resources and readings provided, you will interpret these results and test the hypotheses and writeup these interpretations.

General Submission Guidelines:

• Copy and paste all tables and figures into a Word document and format the results in APA current edition
• Final report should be formatted using APA current edition, and in a Word document.
• 4-5 double-spaced pages of content in length (not counting the title page or references).
• Upload the Word document as a doc or docx file and upload the SPSS output file.
• Submit your mean differences tests assignment by 11:59 p.m. (ET) Sunday of Module 6/ Week 6.

This assignment has two parts and uses the 2018 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (Federal Employee Survey 2018. sav). Load the data set into SPSS.

1. Address the following research question using a nonparametric Mann Whitney U test:

RQ 6: Is there a significant difference in the agreement as to whether the federal agency supervisor provides the employee with opportunities to demonstrate his or her leadership skills (Q43) based on the sex of the employee (DSEX)?

• H06: There is no statistically significant difference in the agreement as to whether the federal agency supervisor provides the employee with opportunities to demonstrate his or her leadership skills (Q43) based on the sex of the employee (DSEX).
• Ha6: There is a statistically significant difference in the agreement as to whether the federal agency supervisor provides the employee with opportunities to demonstrate his or her leadership skills (Q43) based on the sex of the employee (DSEX).
1. Now, perform a nonparametric Mann Whitney U test with:
1. sex (DSEX) as your independent variable groups (male=1 and female=2) and;
1. Q43 as your dependent variable.
• Intepret the results of the Mann Whitney U test.
• Click on Analyze, Nonparametric Tests, Independent Samples
• Click on use Compare Medians.  This is because the dependent variable Q43 is ordinal and not normally distributed.
• Move Q43 to test Fields box and MSEX to Groups box.
• Then, Click on Run arrow.
• The Hypothesis Summary appears.  Double click on it and you get the graph and table as well on auxiliary view.
•
• Address the following research question using a Kruskal Wallis H test:

RQ 7: Is there a significant difference in the agreement as to whether the federal agency supervisor provides the employee with opportunities to demonstrate his or her leadership skills (Q43) based on the education level of the employee (DEDUC)?

• H07: There is no statistically significant difference in the agreement as to whether the federal agency supervisor provides the employee with opportunities to demonstrate his or her leadership skills (Q43) based on the education level of the employee (DEDUC).
• Ha7: There is a statistically significant difference in the agreement as to whether the federal agency supervisor provides the employee with opportunities to demonstrate his or her leadership skills (Q43) based on the education level of the employee (DEDUC).
1. Now, perform a nonparametric Kruskal Wallis H test with:
1. education level of the employee (DEDUC) as your independent variable groups (Less than Bachelor’s=1, Bachelor’s=2, and Beyond Bachelor’s=3) and;
1. Q43 as your dependent variable.
• Interpret the results of the Kruskal Wallis H test.
• Click on Analyze, Nonparametric Tests, Independent Samples
• Click on use Compare Medians.  This is because the dependent variable Q43 is ordinal and not normally distributed.
• Move Q43 to test Fields box and MSEX to Groups box.
• Select Settings tab.
• In the Settings tab, check Kruskal Wallis test.
• Then, click on the Run arrow.
• The Hypothesis Summary appears.  Double click on it and you get the graph and table as well on auxiliary view.

General Instructions

As doctoral students, your assignments are expected to follow the principles of high-quality scientific standards and promote knowledge and understanding in the field of public administration. You should apply a rigorous and critical assessment of a body of theory and empirical research, articulating what is known about the phenomenon and ways to advance research about the topic under review. Research syntheses should identify significant variables, a systematic and reproducible search strategy, and a clear framework for studies included in the larger analysis.

Manuscripts should not be written in first person (“I”). All material should be 12-point, Times New Roman type, double-spaced with margins of one inch.

All manuscripts should be clearly and concisely written, with technical material set off. Please do not use jargon, slang, idioms, colloquialisms, or bureaucratese. Use acronyms sparingly and spell them out the first time you use them. Please do not construct acronyms from phrases you repeat frequently in the text.

Structure of Assignment Paper

1. Use the following structure for your research article: Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review/Theory, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. Include a robust discussion section distinct from your conclusion.
• Give your article a Title that is both descriptive and inviting to prospective readers. Your article title should appeal to both scholars and practitioners. Use a shortened version of the main idea of your article in the title.
• Your Abstract should inform readers what your article is about and its most important findings. Readers, including scholars and practitioners, should be able to understand your topic, argument, and conclusions. Make your abstract straightforward and do not use technical language or jargon.
• In the Lit Review/Theory, cite only literature and theory pertinent to the specific issue and not those that are of only tangential or general significance. When summarizing earlier works, avoid nonessential details; instead, emphasize pertinent findings, relevant methodological issues, and major conclusions. Citation of relevant earlier literature is a  sign of scholarly responsibility and it is critical for the growth of a doctoral student in public administration.
• Methods: The Methods section “describes in detail how the study was conducted, including conceptual and operational definitions of the variables used in the study. Different types of studies will rely on different methodologies; however, a complete description of the methods used enables the reader to evaluate the appropriateness of your methods and the reliability and the validity of your results” (APA current edition).  Include a description of your sample size and procedure, participants, how data collected, and research design.
• Results include data analysis used, results of the analysis including tables and figures.
• Discussion section includes interpretations from the analysis. How do your analyses relate to the results found by scholars in your lit review/theory section. In this section, evaluate and interpret their implications, especially with respect to your original hypotheses.
• Provide a distinct Conclusion that tells readers what you found, why it is important, and what difference it will make for research and practice. Ensure you separate your discussion section from the conclusion of the article. Synthesize your article; do not summarize it. Show readers how the pieces of your article fit together. Answer the question “So what?” Why is your article significant, and how is it relevant?
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