Lab Report Lab Safety and Enzymes

After you complete this lab, you will be able to:

  • Describe the function of the spectrophotometer
    • Explain the significance of the Lambert Beer Law
    • Describe what is being measured by the spectrophotometer
      • What does the diffraction grating do?
      • What is measured in nanometers?
      • What is absorbance?  How is it measured?  What is measured by the detector?
    • Define the cuvette
    • Describe the way in which the spectrophotometer measures absorbance
  • Write a hypothesis based on textbook readings and lecture material
  • Explore the relationship between the structure and function of proteins
    • Describe how the molecular structure of proteins is related to the function of enzymes
    • Define pH and use the definition to describe acid, base, and neutral
    • Using data, describe how temperature and pH changes affect enzyme activity
  • Become familiar reaction set up for assessing enzyme activity
    • Define master mix
    • Identify the enzyme being measured, as well as the substrate
    • Determine the effect of increasing substrate concentration on the reaction rate of turnip peroxidase at a given enzyme concentration.
    • Explore what happens when you alter (do not worry about calculations—save that for chemistryJ )
      • The enzyme concentration
      • The substrate concentration
      • The pH and the temperature

  • Analyze data

Introduction:

You will explore the laboratory equipment as you set up an experiment to explore the function of enzymes.  The concept of amino acids forming the primary structure of proteins, which leads to the complex three-dimensional enzyme molecule, is addressed in the lecture portion of the class.  In this experiment, you will investigate the enzyme, alcohol dehydrogenase.  We will observe the activity of the enzyme, as it catalyzes the conversion of the substrate (ethanol) to product (acetaldehyde) as NAD+ is reduced to NADH, using the spectrophotometer.You will explore the enzyme activity as you alter the substrate and enzyme.  You will continue collecting data as we investigate the impact of various temperature and pH levels on the activity of the enzymes.

The concept of enzyme activity as it relates to metabolism is foundational in the study of microbiology.  Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts, allowing for the chemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. In this exercise we will measure the activity of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase using a spectrophotometer. This piece of equipment measures electromagnetic radiation (light).Compounds will emit or absorb or transmit light of different wavelengths. There is a relationship between the wavelength of light (emitted/absorbed) and frequency. If a particular compound is known to absorb or emit light at a particular wavelength, then measuring the amount of absorbance (transmittance) allow us to determine the concentration ofthe compound using Lambert-Beer Law.Beer’s Law states that the absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration.

The alcohol dehydrogenase added to ethanol and NAD+ causes the following reaction:

Ethanol + NAD+ → Acetaldehyde + NADH

In this exercise you will collect data under the following conditions:

  • Altering the enzyme concentration
    • Altering the substrate concentration
  •  room
  • Adjusted temperature (ice bath, 50o, or 80o).
  • Adjusted pH (pH 2, 5, 9 or 11)

In this exercise, you should consider the textbook selections and lecture material addressing topics of various pH levels on enzyme activity. pH determined by taking the opposite of the base 10 log of the molar concentration of hydrogen ions (pH = – log [H+]).   The pH scale (from approximately 0-14) is a measure of the amount of free hydrogen found in the solution.  Acids dissociate in water, releasing a hydrogen cation and an anion.  As a result of this dissociation, the hydrogen is ‘free’.   The higher the amount of free hydrogen the stronger the acid, the closer to zero on the pH scale.  Bases reduce the amount of free hydrogen available either directly (by binding the hydrogen ions, e.g. NH3 + H+à NH4) or indirectly (by neutralizing e.g. when dissociating in solution to release the hydroxide anion, OH , which combines with H+ to form water).

Procedures: 

  1. The easiest way to complete this lab report is to use the Labster simulations. If you are unable to use the simulations you will find all the information you need in learning sources 2-9 (at the top of this document). If you are able to use the labster simulations follow the steps below. 
  2. Open the Labster Simulation titled Enzyme Kinetics
    1. Complete the simulation only through the pH and temperature optimization missions.
    1. The system is designed to gather data using the 340 nm wavelength on the Spectrophotometer.  Continue with the set-up of the test solutions. 
  3. The experimental design was used to test the effects altering the substrate and enzyme concentrations, and altering physical conditions of temperature and pH on the enzyme. 
    1. Compare the graph of enzyme activity at pH 3, 5, 9, and 11 (all at 25o C)
    1. Compare the graph of activity at the following temperatures: 0,25o ,50o ,70o  (all at pH 8.5)
    1. Lab data will be provided on Canvas for your use in analyzing changes in the pH and temperature on for this enzyme activity.  Use this data for the lab report.  Note, the temperatures and pH levels are different than the simulations.
  4. Open the Labster Simulation titled Protein Denaturation

Explore what happens to the proteins in solutions of hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, ethanol, copper sulfate, and high and low salt solution

Fill out lab report questions and submit lab report before deadline.

Research Paper 101
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Reasons to trust Research Paper 101

On Time Delivery

We pride ourselves in meeting the deadlines of our customers. We take your order, assign a writer but allow some more time for ourselves to edit the paper before delivering to you. You are guaranteed a flawless paper on a timely manner...

24x7 Customer Live Support

Our team at Research Paper 101 is committed to handling your paper according to the specfications and are available 24*7 for communication. Whenever you need a quick help, you can talk to our writers via the system messaging or contact support via live chat and we will deliver your message instantly.

Experienced Subject Experts

Online Experts from Research Paper 101 are qualified both academically and in their experiences. Many are Masters and Phd holders and therefore, are qualified to handle complex assignments that require critical thinking and analyses...

Customer Satisfaction

We offer dissertation papers as per students’ wishes. We also help craft out the best topics and design concept papers. By ordering with us, you are guaranteed of defending and making through those hard faced professors in the defense panel!

100% Plagiarism Free

We at Research Paper 101 take plagiarism as a serious offence. From the start, we train our writers to write all their papers from scratch. We also check if the papers have been cited appropriately. Our website also has a tool designed to check for plagiarism that has been made erroniusly. In essense, the paper you get will be 100% legit...

Affordable Prices

We understand that being a student is very challenging, some students balance between work and studies in order to survive. We therefore offer pocket friendly rates that are very competitive in the market.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.

error: