Lab 2: Maps

Lab 2: Maps

Some general advice and rules to remember that applies to all your labs:

1. If you are unsure of what to do, contact your instructor, or make a posting in the Discussion Board for this lab.

2. All the information you need to answer these questions can be found in the course materials (lecture videos, assigned readings, and in the questions themselves)

3. Read the instructions for each question carefully.

4. If you do any math, you must show your work (write each number and function for each step you use to get your final answer)

5. If you work with other students, make sure you work collaboratively and that each student writes their own answers.

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https://cccconfer.zoom.us/rec/share/5ulWD6_o-nFITI3I2E3-QLYfQbjdT6a8hCIX__FfzkeZE1xJBgbUvi6P1ZgISe4K?startTime=1597734718000

Item at position 1

This question and the following questions all use the USGS Tustin Quadrangle map. Please download the map from the Lab 2 module on Canvas.

1:What is the fractional scale of the Tustin quadrangle map?

You can find the fractional scale at the bottom of the map, above the graphic scales.

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2: If you were to measure a distance of 2 inches with a ruler on a paper copy of the Tustin quadrangle map, how many FEET would that measured distance represent in the real world?

There are 12 inches in one foot. Use the fractional scale, and show your work.

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3:If you travel on Jeffrey Road from the 405 Freeway to the 5 Freeway, how many kilometers have you traveled?

Use the image below, taken with a ruler laid down on a paper map that accurately represents the fractional scale printed on the map, to measure the distance between the two freeways along Jeffrey Road in centimeters.

Then use the fractional scale of the map to calculate the real-world distance. There are 100,000 centimeters in one kilometer. Show your work.

4:Irvine Valley College was not yet built when this map was made, but its location is near the red number 103 printed on the map, by the intersection of Jeffrey Road and Valencia Avenue, which has since been renamed Irvine Center Drive. The main area of the campus forms a perfect square.

Using the graphic scale, measure the length of one of the edges of this square in miles.

Use the steps shown in the video entitled “How to Measure Distances Using a Graphic Scale.” However, you will be placing the edge of your piece of paper against the screen of your device rather than on top of a paper map. Make sure that you do not change the zoom level of your view of the map after plotting the distance on your scrap paper, so that the graphic scale remains proportional to the map as you were viewing it.

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5:Using the graphic scale, measure the length of the longest runway at John Wayne Airport in kilometers.

For illustrative purposes only, the extent of the runway is shown with the bracket in the image below. Please make sure, however, that you are viewing the full Tustin Quadrangle Map when answering this question.

6: Using the graphic scale, measure the distance, in feet, between the top of French Hill (elev. 426 feet) and the hill with an elevation of 548 feet in the San Joaquin Hills (just south of the letter U in ‘Joaquin’). French Hill is marked by a triangle symbol, while the other hill is marked by an X.

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7:A fractional scale sometimes used in maps in the past is 1:126,720. Express this as a verbal scale in the following format: “1 inch = _____________ mile(s)”.

There are 63,360 inches in one mile. Show your work.

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8:You were able to use the digital version of the map to find distances using the graphic scale, and regardless of the size of your computer screen or the zoom level at which you viewed the map, you all should get the same answers, provided you followed the steps correctly.

Why didn’t this method work for finding distances using the fractional scale? Explain.

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9: View the image of the Mercator Projection below, as well as Google Earth with the grid displayed as if it was a globe.

Note that lines of latitude are always parallel and equidistant on the globe, and that the lines of longitude converge at the north and south poles on the globe.

Describe how the graticule differs on the Mercator projection compared to how it appears on the globe.

10: Based on your answers to the previous two question, where in the world do you think the Mercator Projection is the most distorted? Be specific, and explain your reasoning.

Think of it this way: where on the Mercator Projection do the patterns of parallels and meridians differ most from how they appear on the globe?

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11: Compare the sizes and shapes of land masses on the globe versus on the Mercator projection. Based on what you see, do you think Mercator Projection is equivalent or conformal? Choose one.

Describe what you see that leads you to this conclusion.

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12: View the image of the Lambert Cylindrical Projection below, as well as Google Earth with the grid displayed as if it was a globe.

Note that lines of latitude are always parallel and equidistant on the globe, and that the lines of longitude converge at the north and south poles on the globe.

Describe how the graticule differs on the Lambert Cylindrical projection compared to how it appears on the globe.

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13: Compare the sizes and shapes of land masses on the globe versus on the Lambert Cylindrical projection. Based on what you see, do you think Mercator Projection is equivalent or conformal? Choose one.

Describe what you see that leads you to this conclusion.

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14: Examine the map below. (North is at the top of the map). Find the following two cities: Reykjavik, Iceland, and Oulu, Finland.

Which of the two cities is farthest north?

Use the graticule to visually determine the answer.

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15: Examine the map below. (North is at the top of the map). Find the following two cities: Baku, Azerbaijan, and Samara, Russia.

Which of the two cities is farther east?

Use the graticule to visually determine the answer.

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16: This and the following questions use the following web site, which displays Tissot’s Indicatrix on map projections to allow you to visualize how the projection distorts: https://map-projections.net/tissot.php

At the top of the page, click the “Compare” menu option, and then choose the option for “via Selection Form.” (Please use the “simple” mode, not the expert mode). This will allow you to view two different map projections and compare how they distort.

Choose the following two projections from the two drop-down menus, and then click the “Compare” button:

1.     Gall-Peters

2.     Guyou

You will see several images comparing the two projections. Scroll down to the bottom of the page, where you will see one of the two projections with Tissot’s Indicatrix overlaid on it. You can click on the map to toggle back and forth between the two projections and see the indicatrix on both. Note that circles are drawn at 30 degree increments: at latitudes of 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees, and on longitudes of 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 degrees. Please note that the symbols for 90 degrees north and south may be very difficult to see, but look closely and you will see them.

Here’s the first question in this section:

Is the Gall-Peters Projection conformal or equivalent? (Hint: it is one or the other)

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Tissot’s Indicatrix symbols appear on latitudes 0, 30, 60, and 90.

Which of these latitudes has the least distortion in the Gall-Peters Projection?

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18: Does distortion vary between meridians in the Gall-Peters Projection, or is it the same on each meridian?

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19: Is the Guyou Projection conformal or equivalent?

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20: On the Guyou projection, which latitude shows the least distortion: 0, 30, 60, or 90 degrees?

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21: Name a country that appears to have the most distortion on the Guyou projection.

There are multiple possible answers. Consult an atlas/Google Earth if necessary to find the name of a country in the area that has the most distortion.

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22: Choose the Winkel Tripel projection from one of the drop-down menus at the top of the page to view it with Tissot’s Indicatrix.

This question and the following question are about the Winkel Tripel projection. The Winkel Tripel projection is the official projection used by the National Geographic Society for world maps.

Is the Winkel Tripel Projection conformal, equivalent, or neither?

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23: Overall, would you say that Winkel Tripel distorts the world’s features more or less than the other two projections you observed (Gall-Peters and Guyou)? Explain your reasoning.

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24: The map below shows numbers indicating the temperatures in 35 hypothetical cities.

Draw isolines at 5-degree increments to better illustrate the pattern shown on the map.

You can download digital versions of the map in the Lab 2 module. You have two options:

Option 1: Print the map, draw and label the lines with pencil, take a photograph of your work, and upload it here.

Option 2: Draw and label the lines digitally. If you download the powerpoint version you can use Powerpoint itself to draw the lines and then upload the Powerpoint file with your lines shown on it.

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25: This question and the following questions make use of the map of New York State below, showing annual average precipitation for the state.

Based on the map, what is the annual average precipitation for Buffalo?

Please express your answer as a precise number of inches, not as a range. Estimate if necessary.

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26: Based on the map, what is the annual average precipitation for Rochester?

Please express your answer as a precise number of inches, not as a range. Estimate if necessary.

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27: Based on the map, what is the annual average precipitation for Syracuse?

Please express your answer as a precise number of inches, not as a range. Estimate if necessary.

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28: Based on the map, what is the annual average precipitation for Ferris Lake?

Please express your answer as a precise number of inches, not as a range. Estimate if necessary.

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29: Based on the map, what is the annual average precipitation for Albany?

Please express your answer as a precise number of inches, not as a range. Estimate if necessary.

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